# Querying the graph over time

The first set of view functions we will look at are for traveling through time, viewing the graph as it was at a specific point, or between two points (applying a time window). For this Raphtory provides six functions: before(), at(), after(), window(), expand() and rolling().

All of these functions can be called on a graph, node, or edge, returning an equivalent Graph View, Node View or Edge View which have all the same functions as its unfiltered counterpart. This means if you write a function which takes a Raphtory entity, it will work irrelevant of which filters have been applied.

## Before, At and After

Beginning with the simplest of these filters, before(), at() and after() take a singular time argument in epoch (integer) or datetime (string/datetime object) format and return a View of the object which includes:

• before() - All updates between the beginning of the graph's history and the provided time (exclusive of the time provided).
• after() - All updates between the provided time and the end of the graph's history (exclusive of the time provided)
• at()- Only updates which happened at exactly the time provided.

Note

While the first two are more useful on continuous time datasets, at() can be very handy when you have snapshots or logical timestamps and want to look at them individually or compare/contrast.

As an example of these, in the code below where we print the degree of Lome on the full dataset, before 12:17 on the 13th of June and after 9:07 on the 30th of June.

We also introduce two new time functions here, start() and end(), which specify the time range a view is filtered to, if one has been applied.

v = g.node("LOME")

print(f"Across the full dataset {v.name} interacted with {v.degree()} other monkeys.")

v_before = g.before(1560428239000).node("LOME")  # 13/06/2019 12:17:19 as epoch
print(
f"Between {v_before.start_date_time} and {v_before.end_date_time}, {v_before.name} interacted with {v_before.degree()} other monkeys."
)

v_after = g.node("LOME").after("2019-06-30 9:07:31")
print(
f"Between {v_after.start_date_time} and {v_after.end_date_time}, {v_after.name} interacted with {v_after.degree()} other monkeys."
)

Output

Across the full dataset LOME interacted with 18 other monkeys.
Between None and 2019-06-13 12:17:19+00:00, LOME interacted with 5 other monkeys.
Between 2019-06-30 09:07:31.001000+00:00 and None, LOME interacted with 17 other monkeys.

Note

You may have noticed in the code we have called the before() on the graph and after() on the node. This is important, as there are some subtle differences in where these functions are called, which we shall discuss below.

## Window

The window() function is a more general version of the functions above, allowing you to set both a start time as well as an end time (inclusive of start, exclusive of end).

This is useful for digging into specific ranges of the history that you are interested in, for example a given day within your data, filtering everything else outside this range. An example of this can be seen below where we look at the number of times Lome interacts wth Nekke within the full dataset and for one day between the 13th of June and the 14th of June.

Info

We use datetime objects in this example, but it would work exactly the same with string dates and epoch integers.

from datetime import datetime

start_day = datetime.strptime("2019-06-13", "%Y-%m-%d")
end_day = datetime.strptime("2019-06-14", "%Y-%m-%d")
e = g.edge("LOME", "NEKKE")
print(
f"Across the full dataset {e.src.name} interacted with {e.dst.name} {len(e.history())} times"
)
e = e.window(start_day, end_day)
print(
f"Between {e.start_date_time} and {e.end_date_time}, {e.src.name} interacted with {e.dst.name} {len(e.history())} times"
)
print(
f"Window start: {e.start_date_time}, First update: {e.earliest_date_time}, Last update: {e.latest_date_time}, Window End: {e.end_date_time}"
)

Output

Across the full dataset LOME interacted with NEKKE 41 times
Between 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00 and 2019-06-14 00:00:00+00:00, LOME interacted with NEKKE 8 times
Window start: 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00, First update: 2019-06-13 10:18:00+00:00, Last update: 2019-06-13 15:05:00+00:00, Window End: 2019-06-14 00:00:00+00:00

## Traversing the graph with views

As mentioned above, there are some slight differences when applying views, depending on which object you call them on. This has to do with how the filters propagate as you traverse the graph.

As a general rule, when you call any function on a Graph View, Node View or Edge View which returns another entity, the view's filters will be passed onto the entities it returns. For example, if you call before() on a graph and then call node(), this will return a Node View filtered to the time passed to the graph.

However, if this was always the case, it would make it very annoying if we later wanted to explore outside of these bounds, especially as we traverse across the graph.

To allow for both global bounds and moving bounds, if a filter is applied onto the graph, all entities extracted always have this filter applied. However, if it is applied to either a node or an edge, once you have traversed to a new node (neighbour) this filter is removed.

As an example of this, below we look at LOME's one hop neighbours before the 20th of June and their neighbours (LOME's two hop neighbours) after the 25th of June. First we try calling before() on the graph, which works for the one hop neighbours, but once the after() has been applied, the graph is empty as their is no overlap in dates between the two filters.

Next, we instead call before() on the node, which once the neighbours have been reached allows the after() to work as desired as the original filter has been removed.

first_day = datetime.strptime("2019-06-20", "%Y-%m-%d")
second_day = datetime.strptime("2019-06-25", "%Y-%m-%d")

one_hop_neighbours = g.before(first_day).node("LOME").neighbours.name.collect()
two_hop_neighbours = (
g.before(first_day).node("LOME").neighbours.after(second_day).neighbours.collect()
)
print(
f"When the before is applied to the graph, LOME's one hop neighbours are: {one_hop_neighbours}"
)
print(
f"When the before is applied to the graph, LOME's two hop neighbours are: {two_hop_neighbours}"
)
one_hop_neighbours = g.node("LOME").before(first_day).neighbours.name.collect()
two_hop_neighbours = (
g.node("LOME")
.before(first_day)
.neighbours.after(second_day)
.neighbours.name.collect()
)
print(
f"When the before is applied to the node, LOME's one hop neighbours are: {one_hop_neighbours}"
)
print(
f"When the before is applied to the node, LOME's two hop neighbours are: {two_hop_neighbours}"
)

Output

When the before is applied to the graph, LOME's one hop neighbours are: ['ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE']
When the before is applied to the graph, LOME's two hop neighbours are: []
When the before is applied to the node, LOME's one hop neighbours are: ['ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE']
When the before is applied to the node, LOME's two hop neighbours are: ['FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'MALI  ', 'ANGELE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'PIPO', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'PIPO', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'PIPO', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'PIPO', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FANA', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'PIPO', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'PIPO', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'FANA', 'PIPO', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'ARIELLE', 'VIOLETTE', 'EWINE', 'ANGELE', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FEYA', 'PIPO', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'EWINE', 'EXTERNE', 'ANGELE', 'FELIPE', 'LIPS', 'NEKKE', 'LOME', 'BOBO', 'ATMOSPHERE', 'FANA', 'KALI', 'MUSE', 'MAKO', 'MALI', 'PETOULETTE', 'ARIELLE', 'HARLEM', 'VIOLETTE']

## Expanding

If you have data covering a large period of time, or have many time points of interest, it is quite likely you will find yourself calling the above functions over and over. If there is a pattern to these calls, say you are interested in how your graph looks every morning for the last week, you can instead utilise expanding().

expanding() will return an iterable of views as if you called before() from the earliest time to the latest time at increments of a given step.

The step can be given as a simple epoch integer, or a natural language string describing the interval. For the latter, this is converted into a iterator of datetimes, handling all corner cases like varying month length and leap years.

Within the string you can reference years, months weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds. These can be singular or plural and the string can include 'and', spaces, and commas to improve readability.

In the code below, we can see some examples of this where we first increment through the full history of the graph a week at a time. This creates four views, each of which we ask how many monkey interactions it has seen. You will notice the start time doesn't not change, but the end time increments by 7 days each view.

The second example shows the complexity of increments Raphtory can handle, stepping by 2 days, 3 hours, 12 minutes and 6 seconds each time. We have additionally bounded this expand via a window between the 13th and 23rd of June to demonstrate how these views may be chained.

print(
f"The full range of time in the graph is {g.earliest_date_time} to {g.latest_date_time}\n"
)

for expanding_g in g.expanding("1 week"):
print(
f"From {expanding_g.start_date_time} to {expanding_g.end_date_time} there were {expanding_g.count_temporal_edges()} monkey interactions"
)

print()
start_day = datetime.strptime("2019-06-13", "%Y-%m-%d")
end_day = datetime.strptime("2019-06-23", "%Y-%m-%d")
for expanding_g in g.window(start_day, end_day).expanding(
"2 days, 3 hours, 12 minutes and 6 seconds"
):
print(
f"From {expanding_g.start_date_time} to {expanding_g.end_date_time} there were {expanding_g.count_temporal_edges()} monkey interactions"
)

Output

The full range of time in the graph is 2019-06-13 09:50:00+00:00 to 2019-07-10 11:05:00+00:00

From None to 2019-06-20 09:50:00+00:00 there were 789 monkey interactions
From None to 2019-06-27 09:50:00+00:00 there were 1724 monkey interactions
From None to 2019-07-04 09:50:00+00:00 there were 2358 monkey interactions
From None to 2019-07-11 09:50:00+00:00 there were 3196 monkey interactions

From 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00 to 2019-06-15 03:12:06+00:00 there were 377 monkey interactions
From 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00 to 2019-06-17 06:24:12+00:00 there were 377 monkey interactions
From 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00 to 2019-06-19 09:36:18+00:00 there were 691 monkey interactions
From 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00 to 2019-06-21 12:48:24+00:00 there were 1143 monkey interactions
From 2019-06-13 00:00:00+00:00 to 2019-06-23 00:00:00+00:00 there were 1164 monkey interactions

## Rolling

If instead of including all prior history, you want a rolling window, you may use rolling(). This function will return an iterable of views, incrementing by a window size and only including the history from inside the window period (Inclusive of start, exclusive of end). This allows you to easily extract daily or monthly metrics.

For example, below we take the code from expanding and swap out the function for rolling(). In the first loop we can see both the start date and end date increase by seven days each time, and the number of monkey interactions sometimes decreases as older data is dropped from the window.

print("Rolling 1 week")
for rolling_g in g.rolling(window="1 week"):
print(
f"From {rolling_g.start_date_time} to {rolling_g.end_date_time} there were {rolling_g.count_temporal_edges()} monkey interactions"
)

Output

Rolling 1 week
From 2019-06-13 09:50:00+00:00 to 2019-06-20 09:50:00+00:00 there were 789 monkey interactions
From 2019-06-20 09:50:00+00:00 to 2019-06-27 09:50:00+00:00 there were 935 monkey interactions
From 2019-06-27 09:50:00+00:00 to 2019-07-04 09:50:00+00:00 there were 634 monkey interactions
From 2019-07-04 09:50:00+00:00 to 2019-07-11 09:50:00+00:00 there were 838 monkey interactions

Alongside the window size, rolling() takes an option step argument which specifies how far along the timeline it should increment before applying the next window. By default this is the same as window, allowing all updates to be analysed exactly once in non-overlapping windows.

If, however, you would like to have overlapping or fully disconnected windows, you can set a step smaller or greater than the given window size.

As a small example of how useful this can be, in the following segment we plot the daily unique interactions of Lome via matplotlib in only 10 lines!

Info

We have to recreate the graph in the first section of this code block so that the output can be rendered as part of the documentation. Please ignore this.

# mkdocs: render
###RECREATION OF THE GRAPH SO IT CAN BE RENDERED
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
from raphtory import Graph

"data/OBS_data.txt", sep="\t", header=0, usecols=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4], parse_dates=[0]
)
edges_df["DateTime"] = pd.to_datetime(edges_df["DateTime"])
edges_df.dropna(axis=0, inplace=True)
edges_df["Weight"] = edges_df["Category"].apply(
lambda c: 1 if (c == "Affiliative") else (-1 if (c == "Agonistic") else 0)
)

g = Graph()
df=edges_df,
time="DateTime",
src="Actor",
dst="Recipient",
layer_col="Behavior",
properties=["Weight"],
)

###ACTUAL IMPORT CODE
importance = []
time = []
for rolling_lome in g.node("LOME").rolling("1 day"):
importance.append(rolling_lome.degree())
time.append(rolling_lome.end_date_time)

plt.plot(time, importance, marker="o")
plt.xlabel("Date")
plt.xticks(rotation=45)
plt.ylabel("Daily Unique Interactions")
plt.title("Lome's daily interaction count")
plt.grid(True)